Traditional Malay Poisons
Racun Tradisional Melayu

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List of Poisonous Plants
List of Common Snakes
Santau
References


List of Poisonous Plants/Senarai Tumbuhan Beracun
Sample Page
A | B | C | D | E | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | P | R | S | T | U
Abrus precatorius
Acacia auriculiformis
Akasia
Acalypha hispida
Acalypha indica
Acorus calamus
Adenium obesum
Ageratum conyzoides
Agave angustifolia
Akar belimbing
Akar Cempaka Hutan
Akar Ketola Hutan
Akar Saga
Alocasia macrorrhiza
Allamanda cathartica
Anato
Andira inermis
Andrographis paniculata
Anis
Anacardium occidentale
Anthurium andreanum
Antiaris toxicaria
Aristolochia tagala
Areca catechu
Azadirachta indica
Banuk (akar)
Batu pelir kambing (akar)
Bebuta
Beridin
Birah negeri
Bixa orellana
Bogak Jepun
Brachiaria decumbens
Brunfelsia pauciflora
Brunfelsia Biru
Buah Keluak
Bunga Akar Kuning
Bunga Cina
Bunga Merak
Bunga Pecah Empat
Bunga Susu
Bunga Tahi Ayam
Bunga Tiga Bulan
Buta-buta
Cabai Burung
Cabai Melaka
Caladium spp.
Cananga odorata
Calophyllum inophyllum
Caesalpinia pulcherrima
Capsicum frutescens
Cassia fistula
Caryota mitis
Catharanthus roseus
Ceraka Biru
Cengkian
Centella asiatica
Cerbera odollam
Cestrum noctornum
Chika Mas
Cili Padi
Cinnamomum zeylanicum
Crotalaria mucronata
Croton tiglium
Curcuma domestica
Cycas revoluta
Dadap
Dalu-dalu
Datura fastuosa
Datura metel
Dedap
Dedap Batik
Delima
Derris elliptica
Dieffenbachia
Deringu
Digitalis
Digitalis lanata
Discorea daemona
Dudok
Dukung Anak
Ekor Kucing
Elephantopus scaber
Ervatamia coronaria
Erythrina crystagali
Erythrina variegata
Eupatorium odoratum
Euphorbia lactea
Euphorbia milii
Euphorbia pulcherima
Euphorbia tricucalli
Excoecaria agallocha
Gajus
Gardenia jasminoides
Giring-giring
Gloriosa superba
Hevea brasiliensis
Himenokalis Labah
Hempedu Bumi
Hura crepitans
Hydrangea macrophylla
Hymenocallis littoralis
Inai Keling
Ipoh (batang)
Ipomoea tricolor
Jambu Golok
Jambul Merak
Janda Merana
Jarak
Jarak Belanda
Jarak Berumah
Jarak Besar
Jarak Bunting
Jarak Keling
Jarak Minyak
Jarak Pagar
Jarak Putih
Jatrofa buncit
Jatrofa maltifida
Jatropha curcas
Jatropha multifida
Jatropha podagrica
Jerangau 
Jeringau 
Kaca Piring
Kacang Kayu
Kambing-kambing
Kayu Manis 
Kayu Raja
Kecubong
Kecubong Hitam
Keladi Sebarang
Kelembahang
Kelempayan
Kelumpang Telur
Kelur
Kembang Merak
Kembang Pukul Empat
Kembang Songsang
Kemboja
Kemunting Cina
Kenanga
Kepayang
Kesumba
Ketumbit
Khaya
Khaya senegalensis
Khaya
Kunyit Jawa
Lantana camara
Laurentia longiflora
Leucaena leucocephala
Lidah Mertua
Lidah Payau
Malu-malu
Mambu
Manda Kaki
Manihot esculenta
Medang
Mimosa pudica
Mirabilis jalapa
Moringa oleifera
Nerium oleander
Pangium edule
Patah Tulang
Payang
Payung Indonesia
Pedendang
Pedilanthus tithymaloides
Pegaga
Pegaga Tekukur
Pegaga Ular
Penaga Laut
Penawar Lipan
Petai Belalang
Philodendron bipinnatifidum
Phyllanthus niruri
Pinang
Pisang Tanah
Plumbago capensis
Plumeria rubra
Pokok Cerita
Pokok Getah
Pokok Kapal Terbang
Pokok Jepun
Pokok Jerman
Pokok Lipan
Pokok Sesudu
Pong pong
Puding Benggala
Punica granatum
Rabok
Rajah Kayu
Ricinus communis
Ros Pantai
Rumput ceylon
Rumput Jalang
Saga Akar
Saga Betina
Saga Kenari
Saikas
Salix babylonica
Santalia
Sarcolobus globosus
Scindapus aureus
Semalu
Semambu
Sensevieria trifasciata
Setcreasea purpurea
Setkrisia Ungu
Sirih Belanda
Solanum nigrum
Sri Pagi
Sundal Malam
Susun Kelapa
Tabebuia pallida
Tabebuia pentaphylla
Tapak Dara
Tapak Gajah
Tecoma
Tecoma palida
Tcmu Kunyit
Terung Meranti
Terung Para Cicit
Terung Pengar
Terung Pungak
Terung Perat
Tevetia Peru
Terung Pungar
Tetulang
Tulang-tulang
Thevetia peruviana
Tuba
Tuba Kian
Tukus
Tutup Bumi
Ubi Gadung
Ubi Gajah
Ubi Kayu

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List of Common Snakes / Senarai Ular

Sample Page

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | K | L | M | N | O | P | R | S | T | X | Z

Acalyptophis peronii (Eyelash Sea Snake)
Acrochordus javanicus (Elephant's Trunk Snake)
Aepysurus eydouxi (Eydoux's Sea Snake)
Ahaetulla fasciolata (Speckle-headed Whip Snake)
Ahaetulla mycterizan (Malayan Green Whip Snake)
Ahaetulla prasina (Oriental Whip Snake)
Amphiesma conspicillata (Red-bellied Keelback)
Amphiesma inas (Malayan Mountain Keelback)
Amphiesma petersii (Peter's Keelback)
Amphiesma sanguinea (Smedley's Keelback)
Amphiesma sarawacensis (Sarawak Mountain Keelback)
Angkistrodon rhodostoma (Malayan Pit Viper)
Anomochilus leonardi (Leonard's Pipe Snake)
Aplopeltura boa (Blunt-headed Tree Snake)
Astoria stokesi
Bitia hydroides (Keel-bellied Water Snake)
Boiga cynodon (Dog-toothed Cat Snake)
Boiga dendrophila (Mangrove Snake)
Boiga drapiezii (White-spotted Cat Snake)
Boiga jaspidea (Jasper Cat Snake)
Boiga nigriceps (Dark-headed Cat Snake)
Bungarus candidus (Malayan Krait)
Bungarus fasciatus (Banded Krait)
Bungarus flaviceps (Red-headed Krait)
Calamaria albiventer (Red-bellied Reed Snake)
Calamaria lowi gimletti (Gimlett's Reed Snake)
Calamaria lumbricoidea (Variable Reed Snake)
Calamaria pavimentata (Collared Reed Snake)
Calamaria schlegeli schlegeli (Pink-headed Reed Snake)
Calliophis gracilis (Spotted Coral Snake)
Calliophis maculiceps (Small-spotted Coral Snake)
Cantoria violacea (Cantor's Water Snake)
Cerberus rhynchops (Dog-faced Water Snake)
Chersydus granulatus (File Snake)
Chrysopelea ornata (Golden Tree Snake)
Chrysopelea paradisi (Paradise Tree Snake)
Chrysopelea pelias (Twin-barred Tree Snake)
Collorhabdium williamsoni (Williamson's Reed Snake)
Cylindrophis rufus (Red-tailed Pipe Snake)
Dendrelaphis caudolineatus (Striped Bronzeback)
Dendrelaphis formosus (Elegant Bronzeback)
Dendrelaphis pictus (Painted Bronzeback)
Dendrelaphis striatus (Cohn's Bronzeback)
Dryocalamus subannulatus
Dryophiops rubescens (Keel-bellied Whip Snake)
Elaphe flavolineata (Common Racer)
Elaphe porphyracea (Red Mountain Racer)
Elaphe prasina (Green Tree Racer)
Elaphe radiata (Copperhead Racer)
Elaphe taeniura (Striped Racer)
Enhydrina schistosa (Common Sea Snake)
Enhydris bocourti (Bocourt's Water Snake)
Enhydris enhydris
Enhydris indica
Enhydris pahangensis
Enhydris plumbea
Enhydris punctata
Fordonia leucobalia (Crab-eating Water Snake)
Gerardia prevostiana (Gerard's Water Snake)
Gonyophis margaritatus (Rainbow Tree Snake)
Gonyosoma oxycephalum (Red-tailed Racer)
Homalopsis buccata (Puff-faced Water Snake)
Hydrophis brookie
Hydrophis caerulescens
Hydrophis cyanocintus (Banded Sea Snake)
Hydrophis fasciatus atriceps
Hydrophis fasciatus fasciatus
Hydrophis klossi
Hydrophis melanosoma
Hydrophis ornatus (Ornate Sea Snake)
Hydrophis spiralis
Hydrophis torquatus
Hydrophis torquatus aagardii
Kerilia jerdoni (Jerdon's Sea Snake)
Lapemis hardwickii (Hardwicke's Sea Snake)
Laticauda colubrina (Amphibious Sea Snake)
Lepturophis borneensis (Slender Wolf Snake)
Liopeltis baliodeira
Liopeltis longicauda
Liopeltis tricolor
Lycodon aulicus (Common House or Wolf Snake)
Lycodon butleri (Butler's Wolf Snake)
Lycodon effraenis (Scarce Wolf Snake)
Lycodon laoensisc (Indo Chinese Wolf Snake)
Lycodon subcinctus (Banded Wolf Snake)
Macrocalamus jasoni (Jason's Mountain Reed Snake)
Macrocalamus lateralis (Malayan Mountain Reed Snake)
Macrocalamus tweediei (Lim's Mountain Reed Snake)
Macropisthodon flaviceps (Orange-necked Keelback)
Macropisthodon rhodomelas (Blue-necked Keelback)
Macropophis maculatus (Spotted Keelback)
Maticora bivirgata (Blue Malayan Coral Snake)
Maticora intestinalis (Banded Malayan Coral Snake)
Microcephalophis gracilis
Naja naja (Indian Cobra)
Natrix trianguligera (Triangle Keelback)
Oligodon octolineatus (Striped Kukri Snake)
Oligodon purpurascens (Brown Kukri Snake)
Oligodon signatus (Barred Kukri Snake)
Ophiophagus hannah (Hamadryad or King Cobra)
Oreocalamus hanitschi (Hanitsch's Reed Snake)
Pareas carinatus (Keeled Slug Snake)
Pareas laevis (Smooth Slug Snake)
Pareas malaccanus (Malayan Slug Snake)
Pareas margaritophorus (White-spotted Slug Snake)
Pareas vertebralis Mountain Slug Snake)
Pelamis platurus (Flat Sea Snake)
Praescutata viperina (Olive Sea Snake)
Psammodynastes pictus (Painted Mock Viper)
Psammodynastes pulverulentus (Mock Viper)
Pseudorhabdion longiceps (Dwarf Reed Snake)
Pseudoxenodon macrops (Big-eyed Mountain Keelback)
Ptyas korros (Indo-Chinese Rat Snake)
Python curtus (Blood Python)
Python reticulatus (Reticulated Python)
Ramphotyphlops braminus (Common Blind Snake)
Ranphotyphlops albiceps (White-headed Blind Snake)
Rhabdophis chrysargus (Speckle-bellied Keelback)
Rhabdophis subminiatus (Red-necked Keelback)
Sibynophis collaris
Sibynophis melanocephalus
Thalassophis anomalus (Anomalous Sea Snake)
Thalassophis viperina
Trimeresurus hageni (Hagen's Pit Viper)
Trimeresurus monticola (Mountain Pit Viper)
Trimeresurus popeiorum (Popes' Pit Viper)
Trimeresurus puniceus (Flat-nosed Pit Viper)
Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus (Shore Pit Viper)
Trimeresurus sumatranus (Sumatran Pit Viper)
Trimeresurus wagleri (Wagler's Pit Viper)
Typhlops diardi muelleri (Diard's Blind Snake)
Typhlops klemmeri
Typhlops lineatus (Striped Blind Snake)
Xenelaphis ellipsifer (Ocellated Brown Snake)
Xenelaphis hexagonotus (Malayan Brown Snake)
Xenochrophis piscator (Chequered Keelback)
Xenodermus javanicus
Xenopeltis unicolor (Iridescent Earth Snake)
Zaocys carinatus (Keeled Rat Snake)
Zaocys fuscus (White-bellied Rat Snake)

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References

Classical works

  1. Gimlette JD (1971) Malay Poisons and Charm Cures, Third edition, Kuala Lumpur:OUP
  2. Gimlette JD & Thomson HW (1971) A Dictionary of Malayan Medicine, Kuala Lumpur:OUP
  3. Shaw W (1975) Aspects of Malaysian Magic. Kuala Lumpur:Muzium Negara
  4. Skeat WW (1900) Malay Magic - Being An Introduction to the Folklore and Popular Religion of the Malay Peninsula, New York:Frank Cass
  5. Wilkinson RJ (1957) Papers on Malay Customs and Beliefs, Journal of Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society (Singapore), XXX(IV):41-80
  6. Winsteadt RO (1925) Shaman, Saiva and Sufi - A Study of the Evolution of Malay Magic. London:Constable
  7. Gimlette JD (1939) A Dictionary of Malay MedicineLondon: OUP
  8. Endicott KM (1970) An analysis of Malay Magic Oxford Claredon
  9. Ridley HN (1897) List of Malay Plant Name Jour. Br. Roy. Asiat. Soc. (Singapore) No. 3
  10. Skeat WW (1900) Malay Magic London: Macmillan
  11. Marriolt H (1903) Malay Witichcraft Jour. Straits Br. Roy. Asiat Soc. (Singapore) No 39
  12. Winstedt RO (1922) More Notes on Malay Magic Jour. Malay Br. Roy. Asiat Soc. (Singapore), V (II): 342
  13. Ridley HN (1898) The Poisonous Plants of the Malay Peninsular. Agric. Bull. S. and F.M.S(Singapore) VII (8): 199
  14. Ridley HN (1906) Malay Drugs, Agric. Bulletin, S.S. and F.M.S., V (6 & 7); VIII (6)

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Other related works

  1. Amran Kasimin (1995) Santau sebagai satu cabang ilmu sihir. Kuala Lumpur:Watan
  2. Ismail Saidin (1977) Bunga-bungaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur:DBP
  3. 1989Ubat-ubat Tradisional Kuala Lumpur:Ciptaan Jiwaseni
  4. Jahid Haji Sidek (1988) Berpawang dan bersahabat dengan jin menurut Islam. Kuala Lumpur : Nurin Enterprise
  5. A Samad Ahmad (1982) Warisan Perubatan Melayu Kuala Lumpur: DBP
  6. Burkill LH (1966) A Dictionary of the Economic Products of The Malay Peninsular. Kuala Lumpur: Govt. of Malaysia and Singapore - Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives.

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SANTAU

'Santau' is an infamous traditional Malay poison concocted from variety of materials and substances.

The poisonous substances used to make 'santau' can be from animal origin (toxins of snakes, centipedes, jelly-fishes, toads), including that of insects like caterpillers, cockroaches, and spiders. Sometime cat's placenta, bat's eyes or even that of owls and woodpeckers are used. Mating kingcrabs have also been used in the concoction. These can also be mixed with substances from toxic plants (for example 'getah ipoh' - Strychnos ovalifolia, 'kacang hantu'), including 'toxic' parts of bamboos and sugar-canes. Other innate objects like glass, silk threads, iron brushes, nails of human or animals, bones of animals and materials from dead woods, soil and earth have also been found in some concoctions. All or some of these are ground together and concocted into a compact preparation called 'santau'.

The concoction is used to poison others by either introducing it in foods and drinks or applied to clothings, chairs or one's resting place. Some of the concoctions can result in immediate effects while others would depend on the intake of other 'precursors' such as vinegar, lime juice, goat meat and the like. This latter mode of poisoning is rather unsuspecting making it difficult to 'diagnose' and treat.

Prior to its use, the concoction is usually kept for several days so that they are thoroughly 'fermented' and become even more deadly. A period of 40 days is normally observed. A less poisonous santau is kept for a shorter time period. This process is usually carried outside of the house, as a precaution against any untoward incidence from happening in home arising due to its highly toxic nature. It is then left buried in the ground for example under banana trees.

Apart from the variety of poisonous substances used, santau is generally of two types based on whether there is an involvement of any spiritual elements, or otherwise, especially in the process of concocting it. 'Santau angin' is one of the type, so-called because it can be delivered to the victims via the blowing wind, presumably with the help of the 'evil spirits' (akin to the use of 'black magic').

The effects of santau range from coughs, itches and rashes, sore throat and hematemesis (vomiting of blood) to the involvement of psychological symptoms - insomnia, depression and psychosis, and even bizzare behavioural changes, especially if 'santau angin' is allegedly used. Over the years, the victim's physiques worsened and the memory may also deteriorate. The overall health will be severely affected and the final consequence can be fatal.

Source: Amran Kasimin (1995)

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